This study of agricultural PPPs in Ghana, Malawi, and Kenya calls for governments, donors, and companies to ensure greater participation from smallholders in the design of agricultural partnerships. By not engaging with smallholder farmers in the planning phases of such projects, PPPs may overlook the priorities of farmers and miss opportunities to be more effective.
A complementary blog by the Coop and Fairtrade Foundation - Smallholder farmers should be involved in the development of public private partnerships - helps contextualise the report. It serves as a reminder that the interests of marginalized farmers are often bypassed and that commercial interests prevail in the design and implementation of agricultural PPPs. When PPPs are not adapted to meet local needs they can have harmful effects.