Blog 16

Five COVID-19 reflections from a food system perspectives—and how we could take action

Dr. Roy Steiner and his team are leading a multi-year initiative to advance a more nourishing and sustainable food system at the Rockefeller Foundation. In Blog 16 in our series on opportunities for building back better food systems and nutrition, they present five reflections of how COVID-19 presents an opportunity to transform our global food system. They argue that the COVID crisis will "require a rebuilding of economies across the world” and to do this, they propose four actionable steps. They include: shifting diets, supporting local food systems, reducing the burden on our environment, and increasing transparency and coordination. The Rockefeller Foundation has launched the Food System Vision Prize this year. Perhaps the winners of this Prize will take on some of these actions to ensure local food systems are sustainable, healthy, equitable and resilient to better prepare us for future pandemics.

As confirmed cases of COVID-19 increased throughout the world, the immediate instinct of many people was to ensure that they had enough food. The images of empty grocery store shelves and closed restaurants are stark and important reminders of how much we depend on our food system and how central food is in our lives. We define ourselves through what we eat, and the food we eat every day literally becomes who we are. 

As the COVID-19 crisis spreads across borders and continents, we have an opportunity to reflect on the transformation needed if we want to develop a food system that nourishes all people, regenerates and sustains the environment, and enables the resilience and flourishing of culture and community.

Here are five reflections:

1. It is important to recognize that the COVID-19 crisis is associated with a food market selling different species of live animals. 

We don’t know for sure yet how the virus moved from its original host to the food market and on to humans, but the food system is likely involved in some way (1),(2). The fact that the disease likely began in a market for wild animals is also a warning that we cannot continue encroaching and exploiting the remaining natural areas of the world. There are heavy consequences to pay if we do not find a balance with nature that is sustainable and recognize the value of the natural world.(3)


2. Empty grocery shelves are not just the result of the human tendency to hoard in times of danger, but an important reminder that our food supply chains are easily disrupted and many of our food systems lack resilience and redundancy.

Many parts of the world rely on highly centralized systems, at the expense of strong local and regional food systems that could provide better buffering capacity when needed. We are in a global food system, a reality that will not change. However, we can design this global economy in a way that supports local and regional resilience and leverages the advantages of global interconnectedness to mitigate future shocks.  This will require a complete redesign of our subsidy systems, which in most countries effectively only support large commodity-oriented agriculture and fail to support the small- and medium-sized agriculture that produces the diversity of foods needed for a healthy diet. This may also require us to create new multilateral agreements that ensure timely and efficient trade during times of crisis.


3. The COVID-19 crisis has further exposed the limitations of a food system that fails to adequately nourish the majority of the world’s population.

Today’s food system prioritizes cheap calories and high yield, but unintentionally promotes obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease among many other diseases, all of which compromise immune health. Citizens with compromised immune systems such as the 30+ million Americans with Type-2 diabetes, or the 820 million people worldwide who cannot obtain adequate nutrition, will disproportionally suffer the lethal consequences of COVID-19.


4. As the world economy slides into a recession, the agricultural production and grocery retail sectors appear well positioned to weather the storm because people still need to eat and will prioritize their spending on food.

A resilient and sustainable food system, including stronger local and regional food systems, can ensure economic opportunity for significant numbers of people and enable a faster recovery. 


5. In times of crisis, small- and medium-sized enterprises in most parts of the world play a critical role in ensuring that poor and vulnerable people, who are always the ones that suffer the most, continue to have employment as well as access to food.

As food markets and restaurants close across the world, millions are now out of work. Better mechanisms are needed to support these small- and medium-sized enterprises.



The impacts of the COVID crisis will likely require a rebuilding of economies across the world. This is both a challenge and an opportunity to rebuild something that serves people better, and will require both vision and commitment at local, regional and global levels.  Some key and actionable steps include:

  1. Dramatically shifting dietary patterns towards more healthy, protective foods such as fruits, vegetables, seeds, nuts, fish and whole grains. (4) This will require significant changes in our subsidy systems, procurement practices, and education programs. If we are successful, this will dramatically lower health care costs and help us weather the next pandemic with healthier individuals (5) and stronger immune systems (6).
  2. Supporting strong local and regional food systems in order to increase resilience and redundancy. This can be done through more effective government support, leveling the playing field for small- and medium-sized enterprises, and building in collective procurement practices that support foods sourced locally and regionally.
  3. Reducing the burden of our food system on the environment by stopping and reversing the encroachment of agriculture on biodiversity areas, and preventing the exploitation of wild animals for human consumption. By shifting towards more plant-forward dietary patterns, we can lower the risk of further zoonotic disease transmissions, and thus pandemics. (7)
  4. Increasing transparency and coordination across value chains and national borders in order to ensure that food is efficiently distributed, and barriers such as export bans based on fear and logistic bottlenecks resulting from poor coordination do not lead to hunger and hikes in food prices.

The Rockefeller Foundation has long engaged and led the conversation on how to advance a more nourishing and sustainable food system. Last year the Foundation launched a Food System Vision Prize that asked the simple question, “How can we envision a more nourishing and regenerative food system for 2050?”. Over 1,300 organizations from 119 countries answered this call, and their innovative efforts can be viewed online. The learnings from the Prize are an incredible source of ideas for food system communities everywhere as we rebuild and reimagine a more sustainable and equitable post-COVID world.

The most important lesson from this crisis is hopefully the recognition that since we are all part of one interconnected and interdependent social, environmental, and economic system, we cannot solve any of our major problems without collective action supported by a common vision and a system mindset.


About the authors

Roy Steiner is Senior Vice President, Food Initiative, The Rockefeller Foundation. He leads a team focused on creating access to nourishing food for millions of people in the U.S. and around the world, supporting scientific advances in human nutrition and sustainable food production, and carrying forward the Foundation’s enduring commitment to a sustainable Green Revolution in Africa. Learn more

Daniel Skaven Ruben is a consultant to The Rockefeller Foundation Food Initiative, supporting the Foundation’s work to advance a more nourishing and sustainable food system. He previously was part of the process of refreshing the Foundation’s food and agriculture strategy, focusing in particular on leveraging innovative breakthroughs in science and technology. Learn more

Peiman Milani is an international development professional and ag-nutrition expert with 20 years of leadership and technical experience. He has led multidisciplinary projects in East and West Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and the Americas. He currently advises the Rockefeller Foundation on its new Food Initiative. Learn more.

Mehrdad Ehsani is Managing Director for the Food Initiative in Africa. He has an interest in ecosystem approaches to transforming markets for greater inclusivity and sustainability. He has provided technical leadership and oversight of market development programs in Africa in food systems with Adam Smith International, Palladium Group and SNV with funding from UKAid, USAID, Directorate-General for International Cooperation, The Rockefeller Foundation, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. Learn more


1. Andersen, K.G., Rambaut, A., Lipkin, W.I. et al. The proximal origin of SARS-CoV-2Nat Med 26, 450–452 (2020). 

2. Zhou, P., Yang, XL., Wang, XG. et al. A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin. Nature 579, 270–273 (2020).

3. Spetch L. (2020) Modernizing Meat Production will Help Us Avoid Pandemics, Wired

4.  Rafael Flor (2019) Focusing on “Protective Foods” to Reduce the Global Burden of Disease, Rockerfeller Foundation Blog 

5.  Jannasch F et al. Dietary Patterns and Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies. Journal of Nutrition  2017;147:1174–82.

6. Casas R, Sacanella E, Estruch R. The immune protective effect of the Mediterranean diet against chronic low-grade inflammatory diseases. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2014;14(4):245-54. doi: 10.2174/1871530314666140922153350. 



An earlier version of this blog was published on Rockefeller's website, and reproduced here with the authors' permission.



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